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REVIEW ARTICLES
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 83-90

Approach to the management of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease


Department of Neurology, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA

Correspondence Address:
Abhishek Lenka
Department of Neurology, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC 20007.
USA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/AOMD.AOMD_27_19

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Psychosis is a common and often debilitating non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). It typically manifests in the form of well-formed visual hallucinations and minor hallucinations, and, at times, can present with delusions and nonvisual hallucinations. Psychosis is associated with many adverse outcomes in PD, and for that reason, it is essential to recognize and treat the symptoms early. The objective of this review article is to highlight the phenomenology, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of PD-associated psychosis (PD-P) and discuss a step-by-step approach to its management. One of the critical steps in managing PD-P is the identification of potential non-PD causes of psychosis, which often require conservative measures. If no secondary causes are identified, pharmacotherapy should be considered. Role of several drugs including pimavanserin (the only FDA-approved agent for the treatment of PD-P), atypical antipsychotics such as quetiapine and clozapine, and cholinesterase inhibitors such as rivastigmine and donepezil are discussed in this review. In addition, we also highlight the potential role of noninvasive brain stimulation (electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation) for the treatment of medication-refractory psychosis.


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